The aim of this digital project to explore ways of visualizing place names occurring in medieval texts, in particular, in the language scholars commonly call “medieval French.” In later postings I will come back to the question of visualization and share some of the cleaned data and the results of the project.
Medieval French is often cited as the largest vernacular language of the Euro-Mediterranean, but here I would like to ask a basic question, one that to my knowledge is not addressed directly in the critical literature: how many texts were composed in medieval French?
A loaded question, I know. What is a “text”? What is “medieval French”? Simply put, I am initially looking into literary and non-literary edited texts (not documents/witnesses) and in time from the 11th-15th century CE, and in space, over the arc from Britain to the Eastern Mediterranean. It is an expansive canon, far beyond the 100 texts one might closely read for PhD exams or even over the course of a career. I aim to include as many texts written in any variety of medieval French as I can. I am inspired by inclusivity of projects such as Fordham’s French of Outremer/French of Italy , MFLCOF, RIALFrI and Anglo-Norman Online Hub.
At the traditional scale of literary study, scholars seem to come up with reasonable estimates. Take, for example, Holtus’ essay “L’état actuel des recherches sur le franco-italien” that lists some 40 texts as making up the Franco-Italian corpus. When we scale up to the capacious category of “medieval French,” however, how do we go about quantifying textual production?
There are, of course, classic reference works: Gröber’s Grundriß (1888-1902), Holmes’ Critical Bibliography (1947) and Bossuat’s Manuel (published in 1951 and updated until 1991). According to one reviewer of Bossuat’s work in 1951, it contained 6000+ entries, compared to Holmes’ 2588. A handy dictionary I used throughout pre-digital graduate school is the DLF by Bossuat, Pichard and Raynaud de Lage (1964), and especially the re-edition by Zink and Hasenohr (1992) that I will call the DLF2. The latter contains some 2000+ articles. Last year, I counted the works of interest in the DLF2 to give my co-authored DH2013 paper a quick subtitle: “How to use the fuzzy data of 550 medieval French texts?” A hasty, educated guess, but way off! The problems with the numbers from these print reference works is that they lump together entries for genres, authors and themes. Furthermore, both Holmes and the DLF2 use the spatial borders of contemporary France, ostensibly driven by concerns of national literature, to justify (albeit uneasily) the inclusion of Latin and Occitan works.
Perhaps we could count the critical editions published in well-known series (ANTS, TLF, CFMA, SATF, etc.), but medieval French texts were edited all over, published on both sides of the Rhine, the Channel and the Atlantic, and often as dissertations.
Digital resources are another place to turn. In Heidelberg, the DEAF has published data (as of January 2014) about its bibliography that help us break down its composition (6628 sigla, 2585 titles, 1008 medieval authors, 7475 manuscripts). The upper boundary of 2585 titles must be qualified by two facts: first, the bibliography is full of modern reference works, so titles are not necessarily medieval titles, and second, the DEAF gives separate sigla to editions of different witnesses of a text, such as the four versions of Marco Polo’s Devisement (MPolGregP, MPolGregB, MPolGregM and MPolGregcO). A safe assumption would be that there is one work per author, so the online DEAF does help us set a lower boundary of at least 1000 works.
There is also the growing digital bibliography of ARLIMA. In a recent tweet, ARLIMA informed me that as of 18 July 2014, 2702 French texts are recorded in their bibliography.
To me, this seems to be the clearest, most countable estimate of a number of texts written in medieval French that modern scholarship has brought together in one place. It reflects what has been edited and unedited, as well as documents which have been lost to the ravages of history. And, of course, this number will be revised in time…
That no one has quantified the number of texts written in medieval French points, for me, to a larger question about how much we actually know about the diversity of textual production in our period of study. The wager of this digital project is that distant approaches (as proposed by Moretti in Graphs, Maps, Trees and Distant Reading) that expand the textual field we study could serve medieval French studies well. Having an idea of what is there will help us judge the extent of our conclusions when we speak about “medieval French texts.”
Printed Works Cited
Bossuat, Robert. Manuel bibliographique de la littérature française du Moyen Age (Melun: Librairie d’Argences, 1951).
Gröber, Gustav. Grundriß der romanischen Philologie (Strasburg: Trübner, 1888-1901).
Holmes, Urban T. A Critical Bibliography of French Literature: the Mediaeval Period (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1947).
Holtus, Günter. “L’état actuel des recherches sur le franco-italien: corpus de textes et description linguistique » in La Chanson de Geste: Écriture, Intertextualités, Translations, Littérales 14(1994): 147-71.
Moretti, Franco. Graphs, Maps, Trees (New York/London: Verso, 2005).
—. Distant Reading (New York/London: Verso, 2013).
Zink, Michel and Geneviève Hasenohr, eds. Dictionnaire des lettres françaises. Rev. ed. (Paris: Livre de Poche: 1992).